Raya Sebenar Raya

The Arabic word “Eid” refers to something habitual, that returns and is repeated, thus stands literally for a recurrent event. It also implies a place often visited by people, and the period of time in which a particular act is regularly performed. Likewise, each gathering that assembles regularly comes under the category, ‘Eid’. Eids or festivals are symbols to be found in every nation, including those that are based on revealed scriptures and those that are idolatrous, as well as others, because celebrating festivals is something that is an instinctive part of human nature. All people like to have special occasions to celebrate, where they can come together and express their joy and happiness.

(1): ‘Eid-ul-Fitr,
(2): ‘Eid-ul-Adh-haa,
(3): Friday is the day of ‘Eid for Muslims

These three Eids are exclusively for the Muslims, and that it is not permissible for Muslims to imitate the kuffaar and mushrikeen in anything that is a distinctive part of their celebrations, whether it be food, dress, bonfires or acts of worship.
There are three opinions among the scholars:
(1): Some say it is waajib (obligatory);(2): Some say it is Fardul Kifaayah (if some offered the prayer then it is enough and it is not obligatory upon all); and(3): Some say it is Sunnatul Muakkadah (recommended)

The evidence of those who say it is waajib:
Some of the scholars say that ‘Eid prayers are waajib (obligatory) – this is the view of the Hanafee scholars and of Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (may Allâh have mercy on him). They say that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam always prayed the ‘Eid prayer and never omitted to do it, not even once. They take as evidence the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), “Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)” [al-Kawthar 108:2], i.e., the ‘Eid prayer and the sacrifice after it, which is an instruction, and the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered that the women should be brought out to attend the ‘Eid prayers, and that a woman who did not have a jilbaab should borrow one from her sister. [See Tamaamul Minnah: by Al-Albaanee: p.344. Refer to Al-Mughnaee by Imaam ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2, p. 223.]

The evidence of those who say it is Fardul Kifaayah:
Some scholars say that Eid prayer is Fardul Kifaayah. This is the view of the Hanbalees. Refer to Al-Mughnaee by Imaam ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2, p. 223.

The evidence of these who it is sunnatul Muakkadah:
A third group say that ‘Eid prayer is sunnah mu’akkadah. This is the view of the Maalikis and Shaafa’is. They take as evidence the hadeeth of the Bedouin which says that Allâh has not imposed any prayers on His slaves other than the five daily prayers. Refer to Al-Mughnaee by Imaam ibn Qudaamah: vol. 2, p. 223.

So the Muslim should be keen to attend ‘Eid prayers, especially since the opinion that it is waajib is based on strong evidence. The goodness, blessings and great reward one gets from attending ‘Eid prayers, and the fact that one is following the example of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by doing so, should be sufficient motivation.

‘Aayshah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
“For every people there is a feast and this is our feast.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari: (vol. 5, no. 268).]

“Our feast” has a great meaning to Muslims because it tells us that our feasts are our own and derived from our Sharee’ah alone. Holidays are usually based on religious traditions. It is very important that we demonstrate our celebrations with great joy and gathering, and observe them in such a way that distinguishes us from the Mushrikeen. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has ordered us in numerous speeches to defy the Mushrikeen, and these ‘Eids are among what the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wanted us to take special care of. That is why he has said, after seeing that the people of Madeenah had two holidays which they celebrated from before Islaam, which is reported by Anas ibn Maalik that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,

“Allâh has given you better than those feasts: the ‘Eid-ul-Adh-haa (Feast of Sacrificing), and ‘Eid-ul-Fitr (feast of Breaking the fast).” [Sunan An-Nasaaee: English translation: (vol. 2, p.333, no. 1559), Sunan Abu Dauwud: English translation: (vol. 1, p.293, no. 1130). It is authenticated by Shaykh Al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Aboo Daawood: vol. 1, p. 210, no.1004.]

Due to these clear facts, Muslim scholars put great emphasis on the concept of being different from the Mushrikeen in our ceremonies. This is because ceremonies have great effects over the human mind and behavior. Being different in our ceremonies means too that we must not participate in the Mushrikeen’s ceremonies on their holidays. It is mentioned in Sunan Al-Bayhaqee the statement of ‘Umar that, he said, “Do not learn the language of the Mushrikeen without a necessity nor enter the churches of Mushrikeen on their festivals because the anger of Allâh dissends on them then”. Muslims should not celebrate their festivals instead they should oppose them. Muslims can fast on the Mushrikeen’s holidays.

Umm Salamah said the Prophet used to fast on Saturdays and Sundays, and when asked he said: “They are two days of Mushrikeen’s holidays so I like to oppose them in their ceremonies.” [Musnad Imaam Ahmad.]

The above hadeeth is inauthentic in the view of some scholars of hadeeth like Al-Albaanee in Irwaaul Ghaleel: vol. 4, p. 125 and authentic in the view of Imaam Al-Haakim and Imaam Ath-Thahabee. Fasting on Friday or Saturday is haraam (prohibited) in Islaam when a man chooses these days as particular days for fasting and does not fast the day before or after because it is in the hadeeth narrated by Imaam At-Tirmithee which is authenticated by Al-Albaanee in Irwaaul-Ghaleel: vol. 4, p.118, no. 960. by prohibition of fasting on Saturday it is meant to oppose the Jews who keep fast on Saturday. But if someone wants to fast Saturday then he must fast Friday and Saturday or Saturday and Sunday, two days together. Only that person is allowed to fast who has missed his fast of Ramadaan so that he can fast that day. Also the one who has vowed to fast then he can fast or fast as an atonement, and for expiation on Saturday.

Islaam exhorts its followers to make social life a visible expression of God-consciousness. Prayer is the most effective means of fostering this virtue in man. This is the reason why it has been made essential for Muslims to observe obligatory prayers in congregation. It starts with five daily prayers then Jumu’ah is a step forward in this respect, then comes ‘Eids prayers and then once a year the Hajj. The purpose behind it is to provide opportunities to a greater number of Muslims to attend larger congregations in an atmosphere of religious piety. Apart from prayer, the sermon has also been made an integral part of this gathering and the prayer.

The ‘Eid prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.

1: The Muslim is required to make ghusl or ablution on this day. It can be done at any time but to serve the purpose it is recommended to do it before going out for the prayer. The ‘Eid prayer is held in congregation and it is held in a huge gathering more than the Jumu’ah prayer, therefore, as the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked Muslims to make ghusl for Friday prayer, it should also be considered for ‘Eid prayer to serve the purpose. The purpose and the goal is to be clean for prayer and avoid harming the people with odor, etc. The Muslim is required to make ghusl or ablution on this day. It can be done any time but to serve the purpose it is recommended to do it before going out for the prayer. This is recommended because, the person will feel fresh throughout the day, he will have full concentration in his prayer and to what is being mentioned in the khutbah after the prayer and most importantly, he will not harm others with the bad smell.

Imaam Al-Baghawee said in ‘Sharhus Sunnah’: vol.4, pp.301-302, that, “And the sunnah is to take a bath on the day of ‘Eid. It is reported that ‘Alee used to take bath on the day of ‘Eid, and similarly it is reported that Ibn ‘Umar and Salamah ibn Al-Akwa’ used to do so”

The report of ‘Alee is found in Imaam Shaafa’ee’s book: Musnad Ash-Shaafi’ee: vol.1, p.168, but this report in inauthentic due to Ibraaheem ibn Muhammad, who is week in the opinion of the Scholars of Hadeeth. The other report of Ibn ‘Umar is found in the book of Imaam Maalik: Muatta’ Imaam Maalik: (Arabic) vol: 1, p.177 and (English Translation): p.84, chapter: 104, hadeeth: 421. Refer to Zaadul Ma’aad: vol. 1, pp. 441-2.

2: Eating on the two ‘Eids: It is a sunnah to eat dates before leaving for ‘Eid-ul-Fitr. It is preferable not to eat anything on the day of ‘Eid-ul-Adh-haa until performing the ‘Eid prayer in the morning; then one should return home, slaughter an animal, and prepare the meal and eat from it. For ‘Eidul Fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salaatul ‘Eid while for ‘Eidul adh-haa the eating should be delayed until one returns from the ‘Eid prayer and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.

Anas reports:
“The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates.” [This is related by Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 2, no.73.]

Buraidah reports: “The Prophet would not go out on the day of breaking the fast (’Eidul Fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice (’Eidul adh-haa) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah].” This is related by at-Tirmithee and Ibn Majah, and also by Sunan Ad-Daaramee who added: “And he would eat from his sacrifice.” [ Sharhus Sunnah: vol. 4, p. 306, footnote: 1.]

3: It is highly recommended that he should wear his best clothes on this day. Ja’far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every ‘Eid. This is related by ash-Shaafi’ee and al-Baghawee. Ibn al-Qayyim writes: “The Prophet used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two ‘Eids and Jumu’ah.” [Reference can be checked in Sharhus Sunnah: vol. 4, p. 302, footnote. 2. See Zaadul Mi 'a ad: vol. 1, p.441.]

4: He is required to use hair oil.
5: He is required to apply perfume if he has his own, otherwise, he may use his wife’s perfume. Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: “The Messenger of Allâh ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the two ‘Eids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find.” This is related by al-Haakim and in its chain is Ishaaq ibn Barzakh whom al-’Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.

6: He should use the tooth-brush (miswaak) before going to the ‘Eid prayer.

7: He must remove all offensive smells, which might harm others. It is prohibited for him to attend the ‘Eid prayer, if he smells onion or garlic.

8:Takbeeraat during the days of ‘Eid
It is a sunnah to pronounce the takbeeraat on ‘Eid days. Concerning the ‘Eid of breaking the fast, Allâh says: “you should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify Allâh [i.e., say takbeeraat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks.” Al-Baqarah: 2: 185.
Concerning the ‘Eid of the sacrifice, Allâh says: “that you may remember Allâh during the well known days;” Al-Hajj: 22:

The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbeeraat during the ‘Eid of breaking the fast is from the time one goes to the ‘Eid prayer until the khutbah begins. Weak hadith have been recorded stating this, but there are also authentic reports from Ibn ‘Umar and other companions that they did so.

Al-Haakim says: “This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il hadeeth. Maalik, Ahmad, Ishaaq, and Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice] .”

Some say that the takbeeraat are from the night before the ‘Eid, when the moon is seen, until the person goes to the musallaa and the imaam arrives. The time for the takbeeraat during the ‘Eid of the sacrifice is from the day of ‘Arafah until the time of the ‘asr on the thirteenth of Thul-Hijjah. [See Sharhussunnah: vol. 4, pp. 300-1. See Zaadul Mi 'aad: vol. 1, p. 449.]

Imaam Al-Bukhaaree says in Sahih Al-Bukahri: vol. 2, p. 45, chapter. 11. “Superiority of doing good deeds of the days of Tashreeq (11 th , 12 th , 13 th , of Thul-Hijjah ). Ibn ‘Abbaas recited the Holy verses; “Remember Allâh during the known days-i.e. the first ten days of Thul-Hijjah, and also the counted days i.e. the days of Tashreeq.” Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurayrah used to go out to the market saying Takbir during the first ten days of Thul-Hijjah and the people would say Takbir after their Takbir s. Muhammad bin ‘Ali used to say Takbir after Nawaafil.

Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Baaree: “None of that has been confirmed from the Prophet. The most authentic report from the companions is that ‘Alee and Ibn Mas’ood would make the takbeeraat from the day of ‘Arafah to the ‘asr of the last day of Mina. Ibn al-Munthir and others reported it. AshShafa’ee, Ahmad, Aboo Yoosuf, and Muhammad follow that report and it is also the view of ‘Umar and Ibn ‘Abbaas.”
There is no specific time for the takbeeraat during the days of tashriq (three days after ‘Eidul adha). In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbeeraat during every moment of those days. Al-Bukhari recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p. 46, chapter. 12. “During ‘Umar’s stay at Mina, he would say takbeeraat in his tent [so loud] that the people in the mosque would hear it and then they would start doing it. Also the people in the market place would do the same and all of Mina would resound with the takbeeraat. Ibn ‘Umar used to say the takbeeraat, during those days of Mina, after the prayers and while on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking during all of those days. Maymoonah would say the takbeeraat on the day of sacrifice. The women used to say takbeeraat behind Abbaan ibn ‘Uthmaan and ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdulaziz along with the men in the mosque during the days of tashreeq.”

Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said: “These reports show that the takbeeraat are made during all the times of these days, after salaah and all other times. Some say the takbeeraat are made only after the salaah. Some say they are to be made only after the fard prayers and not after nawaafil. Some declare them to be for men .and not for women, while some say that they are only to be said in congregations and not individually. Some reserve them only for those who perform the salaah on time and not for those who are making up a missed prayer. Some say only for residents and not travellers, whereas others think they are only for the people of the city and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-Bukhari is of the opinion that it is for all people and the reports that he has transmitted support his opinion.”

Narrated by Muhammad bin Abee Bakr Al Thaqafee : “While we were going from Mina to ‘Arafat, I asked Anas bin Malik, about Talbiya, “How did you use to say Talbiya in the company of the Prophet?” Anas said: “People used to say Talbiya and their saying was not objected to and they used to say Takbeer and that was not objected to either. “ Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol. 2,p. 46, no. 87

Women can also pronounce the takbeer:
Narrated by Umm ‘Ateeyah: “We used to be ordered to come out on the Day of ‘Eid and even bring out the virgin girls from their houses and menstruating women so that they might stand behind the men and say Takbeer along with them and invoke Allâh along with them and hope for the blessings of that day and for purification from sins.” Sahih Al-Bukhari: vol. 2, p.47, no.88.


hafiz CHouJi said...

Jazaakumullahu khairan kathira for sharing this wonderful article.

Just sharing my two pence:

Some Arabic words are polysemous, in which one word might have more than meaning (and sometimes it is due to the different pronunciation).

The word Fithr, as described in this article was derived from the word Futhuur which means eat/food, thus celebration. But I think it can also be derived from the word Fithrah which means basic.

In this sense, Eid-ul-Fithri can mean going back to the basics. Indeed, we human tend to forget as we sometimes get too immersed in the dunya. The arrival of Ramadhan is the mean to cleanse ourselves - our heart and our soul, and hopefully as Ramadhan departs from us we can thrive and thus go back to the basic nature of human which is to serve Allah and only Allah.

Wallahua'lam. :')

May Allah blesses those who never stop reminding others, and keep them in His Protection and away from His Wrath. Allahumma ameen.


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